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New eFieldbook Available! Bridging the GAPs: Approaches to Treating Water On Farms


As part of eXtension’s New Technologies for Agricultural Extension (NTAE) Year 1 Cooperative Agreement with USDA-NIFA, the eXtension Foundation selected a multi-state initiative including North Carolina State University, University of Florida, University of Tennessee, and Virginia Tech to participate in our program accelerator, receiving several wrap-around services from the eXtension Foundation to help with faster implementation and impact. One component of eXtension’s wrap-around services is the creation of a peer-reviewed eFieldbook about this project and a model to provide to Cooperative Extension. Dr. Chris Gunter, North Carolina State University, served as the Fellow for this project. 

About this eFieldbook:

Preventing foodborne illness and the protection of public health is objective 7.1 of the US Department of Agriculture 2018-2022 Strategic Plan. Sanitary irrigation water for produce is mandated by the USDA, including monitoring, treating and verifying compliance. Proper food sanitation is imperative to prevent situations like the Yuma, AZ E. coli outbreak in the spring of 2018 that ultimately resulted in 210 reported illnesses from 36 states, 96 hospitalizations, 27 cases of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and five deaths. The outbreak was linked to romaine lettuce grown in the Yuma region.

This curriculum, Bridging the GAPs – Approaches for treating water on-farm, is a four-module curriculum designed for a producer audience. This eFieldbook covers:

  1. FSMA Definition and Requirements of Agricultural Water
  2. Agricultural Water Treatment Tools
  3. Developing On-Farm Agricultural Water Treatment Programs
  4. Implementing Agricultural Water Treatments

This eFieldbook, along with others, can be found at Additionally, eFieldbooks can be found in the main navigation on Connect Extension.

Publication authors:

  • Dr. John Buchanan, Associate Professor, Biosystems Engineering & Soil Science, University of Tennessee
  • Dr. Barbara Chamberlin, Extension Instructional Design & Education Media Specialist, New Mexico State University
  • Travis Chapin, Former State Specialized Extension Agent, University of Florida Citrus Research and Education Center. (Currently with FDA)
  • Dr. Faith Critzer, Associate Professor and Produce Safety Extension Specialist, Washington State University
  • Dr. Michelle Danyluk, Associate Professor and Extension Specialist of Food Safety and Microbiology, University of Florida
  • Dr. Laurel Dunn, Assistant Professor, Food Science and Technology, University of Georgia
  • Dr. Chris Gunter, Director of Graduate Programs - Extension, Vegetable Production Specialist and Professor, North Carolina State University
  • Alexis Hamilton, Ph.D Student, Washington State University, Department of Food Science
  • Dr. Lynette Johnston, Extension Associate, North Carolina State University
  • Dr. Troy Peters, Professor, Washington State University Department of Biological Systems Engineering
  • Dr. Channah Rock, Professor & Extension Specialist, University of Arizona
  • Dr. Laura Strawn, Associate Professor and Extension Specialist of Produce Safety, Virginia Tech
  • Dr. Annette Wszelaki, Professor & Commercial Vegetable Extension Specialist, University of Tennessee

Coordinators of this eFieldbook:

  • Dr. Chris Gunter, Director of Graduate Programs - Extension, Vegetable Production Specialist and Professor, North Carolina State University
  • Dr. Lynette Johnston, Extension Associate, North Carolina State University

LinkedIn login is required to access the eFieldbooks. This is similar to using Google or Facebook to log in instead of setting up an account via email. If you do not have a LinkedIn account, you can register one for free here. The purpose of the LinkedIn login is to provide an encrypted ID to the eFieldbook so users can securely interact with that eFieldbook, take notes, and make contributions. The eXtension Foundation is not collecting your personal information. In order to receive notice updates from eXtension, we invite you to opt-in the first time you login to an eFieldbook by providing your desired email address.

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About the Extension Foundation

The Extension Foundation was formed in 2006 by Extension Directors and Administrators. Today, the Foundation partners with Cooperative Extension through liaison roles and a formal plan of work with the Extension Committee on Organization and Policy (ECOP) to increase system capacity while providing programmatic services, and helping Extension programs scale and investigate new methods and models for implementing programs. The Foundation provides professional development to Cooperative Extension professionals and offers exclusive services to its members. In 2020 and 2021, the Extension Foundation has awarded 85% of its direct funding back to the Cooperative Extension System, 100% of funds are used to support Cooperative Extension initiatives. 

This technology is supported in part by New Technologies for Ag Extension (funding opportunity no. USDA-NIFA-OP-010186), grant no. 2023-41595-41325 from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture or the Extension Foundation. For more information, please visit You can view the terms of useat

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